Research in our laboratory focuses on the relationship between children's language learning environments, especially parents' language input to children, and children's acquisition.





2337 Franz Hall

502 Portola Plaza

Los Angeles, CA 90095

Slone, L.K. & Sandhofer, C. M. (2017). Consider the category: The effect of spacing depends on individual learning histories Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 159, 34-49 [PDF]

Atagi, N., Goldenberg, E. R., & Sandhofer, C. M. (2016). Children's use of linguistic information when learning in a bilingual context. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 144, 199-208. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2015.11.005 [PDF]

Atagi, N. & Sandhofer, C. M., (2015). Characterizing Japanese parents' numeral classifier input and its effects on children's classifier and number learning. Psychology of Language and Communication, 19, 101-127. doi:10.1515/plc-2015-0007 [PDF]

Vlach, H. A., Sandhofer, C. M., & Bjork, R. A. (2014). Equal spacing and expanding schedules in children’s categorization and generalization. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 123, 129–137. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2014.01.004 [PDF]

Thom, E. E, & Sandhofer, C.M. (2014). How symbolic experience shapes children’s symbolic flexibility. Child Development, 85, 738–754. doi: 10.1111/cdev.12147 [PDF]

Gluckman, M., Vlach, H. A., & Sandhofer, C. M. (2014). Spacing Simultaneously Promotes Multiple Forms of Learning in Children’s Science Curriculum. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 28, 266-273. doi: 10.1002/acp.2997 [PDF]

Vlach, H. A., & Sandhofer, C. M. (2014). Retrieval Dynamics and retention in cross-situational statistical learning. Cognitive Science, 38, 757-774. doi: 10.1111/cogs.12092 [PDF]

Schonberg, C., Sandhofer, C. M., Tsang, T. & Johnson, S. P. (2014). Does bilingual experience affect early visual development? Frontiers in Psychology, 4,1-11. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01429 [PDF]

Goldenberg, E. A., & Sandhofer, C. M. (2013). Who is she? Changes in the person context affect categorization. Frontiers in Psychology, 4,1-6. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00745 [PDF]

Goldenberg, E. A., & Sandhofer, C. M. (2013). Same, Varied, or Both? Contextual Support Aids Young Children in Generalizing Category Labels. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 115, 150 -162. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2012.11.011 [PDF]

Ankowski, A. A., Vlach, H. A., & Sandhofer, C. M. (2013). Comparison vs. Contrast: Task specifics affect category acquisition. Infant and Child Development, 22, 1-23. doi: 10.1002/icd.1764 [PDF]

Vlach, H. A., & Sandhofer, C. M. (2012). Distributing learning over time: The spacing effect in children’s acquisition and generalization of science concepts. Child Development, 83, 1137-1144. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2012.01781.x [PDF]

Ankowski, A. A., Thom, E. E., Sandhofer, C. M., & Blaisdell, A. A. (2012). Spatial language guides children’s search strategies: The role of language in children’s landmark use. Child Development Research, 2012, 1-14. doi:10.1155/2012/427364 [PDF]

Vlach, H. A., & Sandhofer, C. M. (2012). Fast Mapping Across Time: Memory Processes Support Children's Retention of Learned Words. Frontiers in Developmental Psychology, 3: 46, 1-8. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00046 [PDF]

Mix, K. S., & Sandhofer, C. M., Moore, J.A., & Russell, C. (2012). Acquisition of the cardinal word principle: The role of input. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 27, 274–283. doi:10.1016/j.ecresq.2011.10.003

Vlach, H. A., Ankowski, A., & Sandhofer, C. M. (2012).  At the same or apart in time?  Effects of timing in children’s generalization.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 38, 246-254. doi: 10.1037/a0025260 [PDF]

Chang, A., Sandhofer, C. M., & Brown, C. S. (2011). Gender Biases in Early Number Exposure to Preschool-Aged Children. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 30, 440-450. doi: 10.1177/0261927X11416207

Vlach, H. A., & Sandhofer, C. M. (2011). Developmental Differences in Children's Context-Dependent Word Learning. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 108, 394-401. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2010.09.011

Chang, A., Sandhofer, C. M., Adelchanow, L., & Rottman, B. (2011). Language, culture, and number: Differences in numerical language input in Mandarin Chinese and English. Journal of Child Language, 38, 341-355. doi: 10:1017/S0305000909990390

Thom, E. E, & Sandhofer, C.M. (2009). More is more: The relationship between vocabulary size and generalization. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 104, 466-473.

Chang, A. & Sandhofer, C. (2009). Language Differences in Bilingual Parent Number Speech to Preschool-Aged Children. In N.A. Taatgen & H. van Rijn (Eds.) Proceedings of the Thirty-first Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 887-892). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

Vlach, H. A., Sandhofer, C., & Kornell, N. (2008). The Spacing Effect in Children's Memory and Category Induction. Cognition, 109, 163-167.

Sandhofer, C. M & Doumas, L. A. A (2008). Order of presentation effects in learning color categories, Journal of Cognition and Development, 9, 194-221.

Doumas, L. A. A., Hummel, J. E. & Sandhofer, C. (2008). A theory of the discovery and predication of relational concepts. Psychological Review, 1, 1-43.

Mix, K. S. & Sandhofer, C. M. (2007). Do we need a number sense? In M. J. Roberts (Ed.). Integrating the Mind. (pp 293- 326). Hove, UK: Psychology Press.

Sandhofer, C. M. & Smith, L. B. (2007). Learning adjectives in the real world: How learning nouns impedes learning adjectives. Language Learning and Development, 3, 233-267.

Sandhofer, C., & Thom, E. E. (2006). Taking the task seriously: Reflections on measures of color acquisition. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 94, 344-348.

Mix, K. S., & Sandhofer, C. M. & Baroody, A. (2005). Number words and number concepts: The interplay of verbal and nonverbal processes in early quantitative development. In R.V. Kail (Ed.) Advances in Child Development and Behavior, 33, New York: Academic Press.

Sandhofer, C. & Smith, L. B., (2004). Perceptual complexity and form class cues in novel word extension tasks: How four-year-old children interpret adjectives and count nouns. Developmental Science, 7, 378-388.

Sandhofer, C. & Smith, L. B. (2001). Why children learn color and size words so differently: Evidence from adults' learning of artificial terms. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 130, 600-62

Sandhofer, C. & Smith, L. B.& Luo, J. (2000). Counting nouns and verbs in the input: Differential frequencies, different kinds of learning? Journal of Child Language, 27, 561-585.

Sandhofer, C. & Smith, L. B. (1999). Learning color words involves learning multiple mappings. Developmental Psychology, 35, 668-679.

Goldin-Meadow, S., & Sandhofer, C. (1999). Gestures convey substantive information about a child's thoughts to ordinary listeners. Developmental Science, 2, 67-74

Smith, L. B., Gasser, M. & Sandhofer, C. (1997). Learning to talk about the properties of objects: A network model of the development of dimensions. In R. L. Goldstone, P. G. Schyns, & D. L. Medin (Eds.) Perceptual Learning The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 36, 219-255.